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Main Title: Behavioral Changes to Repeated Takeovers in Highly Automated Driving: Effects of the Takeover-Request Design and the Nondriving-Related Task Modality
Author(s): Roche, Fabienne
Somieski, Anna
Brandenburg, Stefan
Type: Article
Abstract: Objective: We investigated drivers’ behavior and subjective experience when repeatedly taking over their vehicles’ control depending on the design of the takeover request (TOR) and the modality of the nondriving-related task (NDRT). Background: Previous research has shown that taking over vehicle control after highly automated driving provides several problems for drivers. There is evidence that the TOR design and the NDRT modality may influence takeover behavior and that driver behavior changes with more experience. Method: Forty participants were requested to resume control of their simulated vehicle six times. The TOR design (auditory or visual-auditory) and the NDRT modality (auditory or visual) were varied. Drivers’ takeover behavior, gaze patterns, and subjective workload were recorded and analyzed. Results: Results suggest that drivers change their behavior to the repeated experience of takeover situations. An auditory TOR leads to safer takeover behavior than a visual-auditory TOR. And with an auditory TOR, the takeover behavior improves with experience. Engaging in the visually demanding NDRT leads to fewer gazes on the road than the auditory NDRT. Participants’ fixation duration on the road decreased over the three takeovers with the visually demanding NDRT. Conclusions: The results imply that (a) drivers change their behavior to repeated takeovers, (b) auditory TOR designs might be preferable over visual-auditory TOR designs, and (c) auditory demanding NDRTs allow drivers to focus more on the driving scene. Application: The results of the present study can be used to design TORs and determine allowed NDRTs in highly automated driving.
Subject(s): auditory displays
driver behavior
eye tracking
human-automation interaction
interface evaluation
vehicle automation
visual displays
Issue Date: 5-Dec-2018
Date Available: 12-Nov-2020
Language Code: en
DDC Class: 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Journal Title: Human Factors: The Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Publisher: SAGE
Volume: 61
Issue: 5
Publisher DOI: 10.1177/0018720818814963
Page Start: 839
Page End: 849
EISSN: 1547-8181
ISSN: 0018-7208
Notes: This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively.
Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich.
TU Affiliation(s): Fak. 5 Verkehrs- und Maschinensysteme » Inst. Psychologie und Arbeitswissenschaft » FG Kognitionspsychologie & Kognitive Ergonomie
Appears in Collections:Technische Universität Berlin » Publications

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