Sustainable Synthesis of Cadmium Sulfide, with Applicability in Photocatalysis, Hydrogen Production, and as an Antibacterial Agent, Using Two Mechanochemical Protocols

Shalabayev, Zhandos; Baláž, Matej; Khan, Natalya; Nurlan, Yelmira; Augustyniak, Adrian; Daneu, Nina; Tatykayev, Batukhan; Dutková, Erika; Burashev, Gairat; Casas-Luna, Mariano; Džunda, Róbert; Bureš, Radovan; Čelko, Ladislav; Ilin, Aleksandr; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali

FG Baustoffe und Bauchemie

CdS nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using cadmium acetate and sodium sulfide as Cd and S precursors, respectively. The effect of using sodium thiosulfate as an additional sulfur precursor was also investigated (combined milling). The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, PL spectroscopy, DLS, and TEM. Photocatalytic activities of both CdS samples were compared. The photocatalytic activity of CdS, which is produced by combined milling, was superior to that of CdS, and was obtained by an acetate route in the degradation of Orange II under visible light irradiation. Better results for CdS prepared using a combined approach were also evidenced in photocatalytic experiments on hydrogen generation. The antibacterial potential of mechanochemically prepared CdS nanocrystals was also tested on reference strains of E. coli and S. aureus. Susceptibility tests included a 24-h toxicity test, a disk diffusion assay, and respiration monitoring. Bacterial growth was not completely inhibited by the presence of neither nanomaterial in the growth environment. However, the experiments have confirmed that the nanoparticles have some capability to inhibit bacterial growth during the logarithmic growth phase, with a more substantial effect coming from CdS nanoparticles prepared in the absence of sodium thiosulfate. The present research demonstrated the solvent-free, facile, and sustainable character of mechanochemical synthesis to produce semiconductor nanocrystals with multidisciplinary application.