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Main Title: Data availability and the need for research to localize, quantify and recycle critical metals in information technology, telecommunication and consumer equipment
Author(s): Chancerel, Perrine
Rotter, Vera Susanne
Ueberschaar, Maximilian
Marwede, Max
Nissen, Nils F.
Lang, Klaus-Dieter
Type: Article
Language Code: en
Abstract: The supply of critical metals like gallium, germanium, indium and rare earths elements (REE) is of technological, economic and strategic relevance in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Recycling is one of the key strategies to secure the long-term supply of these metals. The dissipation of the metals related to the low concentrations in the products and to the configuration of the life cycle (short use time, insufficient collection, treatment focusing on the recovery of other materials) creates challenges to achieve efficient recycling. This article assesses the available data and sets priorities for further research aimed at developing solutions to improve the recycling of seven critical metals or metal families (antimony, cobalt, gallium, germanium, indium, REE and tantalum). Twenty-six metal applications were identified for those six metals and the REE family. The criteria used for the assessment are (i) the metal criticality related to strategic and economic issues; (ii) the share of the worldwide mine or refinery production going to EEE manufacturing; (iii) rough estimates of the concentration and the content of the metals in the products; (iv) the accuracy of the data already available; and (v) the occurrence of the application in specific WEEE groups. Eight applications were classified as relevant for further research, including the use of antimony as a flame retardant, gallium and germanium in integrated circuits, rare earths in phosphors and permanent magnets, cobalt in batteries, tantalum capacitors and indium as an indium–tin-oxide transparent conductive layer in flat displays.
Issue Date: 2013
Date Available: 8-Jan-2019
DDC Class: 690 Hausbau, Bauhandwerk
Subject(s): critical metals
electronic waste
Sponsor/Funder: BMBF, 033R087A, r³ - Strategische Metalle, Verbundvorhaben: UPGRADE - Integrierte Ansätze zur Rückgewinnung von Spurenmetallen und zur Verbesserung der Wertschöpfung aus Elektro- und Elektronikaltgeräten, TP1: Übergreifendes Stoffstrommanagement und Design für Recycling
Journal Title: Waste Management & Research
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publisher Place: Washington, DC
Volume: 31
Issue: 10 Supplement
Publisher DOI: 10.1177/0734242X13499814
Page Start: 3
Page End: 16
EISSN: 1096-3669
ISSN: 0734-242X
Notes: Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich.
This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively.
Appears in Collections:FG Technischer Umweltschutz / Sustainable Engineering » Publications

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