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Main Title: Formation of a carcinogenic aromatic amine from an azo dye by human skin bacteria in vitro
Author(s): Platzek, T.
Lang, C.
Grohmann, G.
Gi, U.-S.
Baltes, W.
Type: Article
Language Code: en
Abstract: Azo dyes represent the major class of dyestuffs. They are metabolised to the corresponding amines by liver enzymes and the intestinal microflora following incorporation by both experimental animals and humans. For safety evaluation of the dermal exposure of consumers to azo dyes from wearing coloured textiles, a possible cleavage of azo dyes by the skin microflora should be considered since, in contrast to many dyes, aromatic amines are easily absorbed by the skin. A method for measuring the ability of human skin flora to reduce azo dyes was established. In a standard experiment, 361011 cells of a culture of Staphylococcus aureus wereincubatedinsyntheticsweat (pH 6.8, final volume 20 mL) at 288C for 24 h with Direct Blue 14 (C.I. 23850, DB 14). The reaction products were extracted and analysed using HPLC. The reduction product o-tolidine (3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, OT) could indeed be detected showing that the strain used was able to metabolise DB 14 to the corresponding aromatic amine. In addition to OT, two further metabolites of DB 14 were detected. Using mass spectrometry they were identified as 3,3'-dimethyl-4-amino-4'-hydroxybiphenyl and 3,3'-di methyl-4-aminobiphenyl. The ability to cleave azo dyes seems to be widely distributed among human skin bacteria, as, under these in vitro conditions, bacteria isolated from healthy human skin and human skin bacteria from strain collections also exhibited azo reductase activity. Further studies are in progress in order to include additional azo dyes and coloured textiles. At the moment, the meaning of the results with regard to consumer health cannot be finally assessed.
Issue Date: 1999
Date Available: 8-Jan-2019
DDC Class: 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Subject(s): azo dyes
skin bacteria
Journal Title: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publisher Place: Washington, DC
Volume: 18
Issue: 9
Publisher DOI: 10.1191/096032799678845061
Page Start: 552
Page End: 559
EISSN: 1477-0903
ISSN: 0960-3271
Notes: Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich.
This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively.
Appears in Collections:FG Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie » Publications

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