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Concentrating Model Solutions and Fruit Juices Using CO2 Hydrate Technology and Its Quantitative Effect on Phenols, Carotenoids, Vitamin C and Betanin

Rudolph, Alexander; El-Mohamad, Amna; McHardy, Christopher; Rauh, Cornelia

Fruits have an important economic impact in the context of plant-based food production. The consumption of fruit juices, mostly produced from concentrates, is particularly noteworthy. Conventional concentration methods do not always enable a sustainable and gentle concentration. The innovative gas hydrate technology addresses this point with its energy-saving, gentle character, and high concentration potential. In this study, the concentration of fruit juices and model solutions using CO2 hydrate technology was investigated. To find a suitable operating point for hydrate formation in the used bubble column, the hydrate formation in a water–sucrose model solution was evaluated at different pressure and temperature combinations (1, 3, 5 °C and 32.5, 37.5, 40 bar). The degrees of concentration indicate that the bubble column reactor operates best at 37.5 bar and 3 °C. To investigate the gentle processing character of the hydrate technology, its quantitative effects on vitamin C, betanin, polyphenols, and carotenoids were analyzed in the produced concentrates and hydrates via HPLC and UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The results for fruit juices and model solutions imply that all examined substances are accumulated in the concentrate, while only small amounts remain in the hydrate. These amounts can be related to an inefficient separation process.
Published in: Foods, 10.3390/foods10030626, MDPI