The Assessment of Climate Variables and Geographical Distribution on Residential Drinking Water Demand in Ethiopia
Water managers have increasingly shown that demand management solutions are more important than searching for alternative sources to resolve the challenges and shortages of water supply services. This study identifies the impact of climate variables on residential water demand in three geographically and spatially dispersed towns (Arba Minch, Ziway, and Debre Birhan) in Ethiopia. Monthly mean temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation are analyzed using multivariate regression models to identify and evaluate the impacts of the parameters on water consumption. Principal component analysis (PCA) is also used to determine the dominant independent variable affecting the rate of water consumption. Mean temperature is shown to be the dominant variable causing the changes in water consumption in Arba Minch. The water consumption at Debre Birhan is slightly affected by relative humidity. Analyzed climate variables do not affect the water consumption changes at Ziway. The main findings of this paper show that geographical distribution and other determinants are more important determinants of residential water demand. It is concluded that the analyzed climate variables are not the dominant determinants which impact drinking water consumption at the study sites. Thus, it is recommended to include relevant information about the climate variables alongside other determinants in order to enhance the water management system in evaluating and auditing water usage.
Published in: Water, 10.3390/w14111722, MDPI