Graphene Quantum Dots as Nanozymes for Electrochemical Sensing of Yersinia enterocolitica in Milk and Human Serum
The genus Yersinia contains three well-recognized human pathogens, including Y. enterocolitica, Y. pestis, and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Various domesticated and wild animals carry Yersinia in their intestines. Spread to individuals arises from eating food or water contaminated by infected human or animal faeces. Interaction with infected pets and domestic stock may also lead to infection. Yersinia is able to multiply at temperatures found in normal refrigerators; hence, a large number of the bacteria may be present if meat is kept without freezing. Yersinia is also rarely transmitted by blood transfusion, because it is able to multiply in stored blood products. Infection with Yersinia can cause yersiniosis, a serious bacterial infection associated with fever, abdominal pain and cramps, diarrhea, joint pain, and symptoms similar to appendicitis in older children and adults. This paper describes a novel immunosensor approach using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as enzyme mimics in an electrochemical sensor set up to provide an efficient diagnostic method for Y. enterecolitica. The optimum assay conditions were initially determined and the developed immunosensor was subsequently used for the detection of the bacterium in milk and human serum. The GQD-immunosensor enabled the quantification of Y. enterocolitica in a wide concentration range with a high sensitivity (LODmilk = 5 cfu mL−1 and LODserum = 30 cfu mL−1) and specificity. The developed method can be used for any pathogenic bacteria detection for clinical and food samples without pre-sample treatment. Offering a very rapid, specific and sensitive detection with a label-free system, the GQD-based immunosensor can be coupled with many electrochemical biosensors.
Published in: Materials, 10.3390/ma12132189, MDPI