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Long-Wavelength VCSELs: Status and Prospects

Babichev, Andrey; Blokhin, Sergey; Kolodeznyi, Evgenii; Karachinsky, Leonid; Novikov, Innokenty; Egorov, Anton; Tian, Si-Cong; Bimberg, Dieter

Single-mode long-wavelength (LW) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) present an inexpensive alternative to DFB-lasers for data communication in next-generation giga data centers, where optical links with large transmission distances are required. Narrow wavelength-division multiplexing systems demand large bit rates and single longitudinal and transverse modes. Spatial division multiplexing transmission through multicore fibers using LW VCSELs is enabling still larger-scale data center networks. This review discusses the requirements for achieving high-speed modulation, as well as the state-of-the-art. The hybrid short-cavity concept allows for the realization of f3dB frequencies of 17 GHz and 22 GHz for 1300 nm and 1550 nm range VCSELs, respectively. Wafer-fusion (WF) concepts allow the realization of long-time reliable LW VCSELs with a record single-mode output power of more than 6 mW, 13 GHz 3 dB cut-off frequency, and data rates of 37 Gbit/s for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation at 1550 nm.
Published in: Photonics, 10.3390/photonics10030268, MDPI