Delayed feedback control of active particles: a controlled journey towards the destination
We explore theoretically the navigation of an active particle based on delayed feedback control. The delayed feedback enters in our expression for the particle orientation which, for an active particle, determines (up to noise) the direction of motion in the next time step. Here we estimate the orientation by comparing the delayed position of the particle with the actual one. This method does not require any real-time monitoring of the particle orientation and may thus be relevant also for controlling sub-micron sized particles, where the imaging process is not easily feasible. We apply the delayed feedback strategy to two experimentally relevant situations, namely, optical trapping and photon nudging. To investigate the performance of our strategy, we calculate the mean arrival time analytically (exploiting a small-delay approximation) and by simulations.
Published in: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 10.1039/C9CP00495E, Royal Society of Chemistry