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Electrification of waste collection vehicles: Techno-economic analysis based on an energy demand simulation using real-life operational data

Schmid, Fabian; Taube, Linda; Rieck, Jenny; Behrendt, Frank

FG Energieverfahrenstechnik und Umwandlungstechniken regenerativer Energien

Waste transport plays an important role in the decarbonization of the transport sector. In this paper diesel-powered (dWCV) and electric waste collections vehicles (eWCV) and their operation are analysed regarding energy demand and total cost of ownership (TCO) integrating Well-to-Wheel emission costs. Further, an open-source simulation tool with a route synthetization approach is presented using extensive real-life operational data of five different route types. Determined WCV energy demand varies greatly between vehicle topologies and analysed route types. eWCV show a mean distance-specific energy demand of 1.85 kWh·km-1, while values for dWCV increase to 5.43 kWh·km-1 respectively. The factors route distance and number of waste containers collected show the highest influence on results. Therefore, battery capacity should be sized according to specific route types. eWCV show higher TCO than dWCV under current economic constraints but fuel price level and annual vehicle mileage show a high influence on economic feasibility. Taking the planned emissions price mechanism of the German Government into account, economic scenarios could be identified, which make eWCV advantageous yet in 2021. In technical terms, there is nothing to stop for the electrification of WCV, and with suitable political instruments eWCV could become profitable in the short-term.