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Development of a Point-of-Care SPR Sensor for the Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Choudhary, Sunil; Altintas, Zeynep

A novel point-of-care surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was developed for the sensitive and real-time detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) using epitope-imprinted molecular receptors. The surface coverage of a nano-molecularly imprinted polymer (nanoMIP)-functionalized SPR sensor chip and the size of nanoMIPs (155.7 nm) were characterized using fluorescence microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques, respectively. Atomic force microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry techniques confirmed the successful implementation of each step of the sensor fabrication. The SPR bio-detection assay was initially established by targeting the cTnI peptide template, and the sensor allowed the detection of the peptide in the concentration range of 100–1000 nM with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.96 and limit of detection (LOD) of 76.47 nM. The optimum assay conditions for protein recognition were subsequently determined, and the cTnI biomarker could be detected in a wide concentration range (0.78–50 ng mL−1) with high reproducibility (R2 = 0.91) and sensitivity (LOD: 0.52 ng mL−1). The overall sensor results were subjected to three binding isotherm models, where nanoMIP-cTnI interaction followed the Langmuir binding isotherm with the dissociation constant of 2.99 × 10−11 M, indicating a very strong affinity between the cTnI biomarker and epitope-imprinted synthetic receptor. Furthermore, the selectivity of the sensor was confirmed through studying with a control nanoMIP that was prepared by imprinting a non-specific peptide template. Based on the cross-reactivity tests with non-specific molecules (i.e., glucose, p53 protein, transferrin and bovine serum albumin), the nanoMIP-SPR sensor is highly specific for the target biomarker. The developed biomimetic sensor, relying on the direct assay strategy, holds great potential not only for the early and point-of-care testing of acute myocardial infarction but also for other life-threatening diseases that can be diagnosed by determining the elevated levels of certain biomarkers.
Published in: Biosensors, 10.3390/bios13020229, MDPI