X‐ray Tomography and Tomoscopy on Metals: A Review
X-ray tomography is a versatile tool in materials research and engineering since it allows for a non-destructive and three-dimensional mapping of the constituents of a heterogeneous material as long as they differ in their interactions with X-rays. Recent developments of the technique have brought down the time needed for the acquisition of a single tomogram by many orders of magnitude compared to what was needed 25 years ago. Nowadays, up to 1000 full tomograms can be recorded in a second, which enables real-time studies of changes in samples caused by reactions or by applied processing operations. The term tomoscopy has been coined for such sequences of 3D images. We review the application of X-ray tomography and tomoscopy on metals and describe each step required and the associated challenges. A selection of representative investigations is presented with a focus on time-resolved phenomena in metals and alloys ranging from mechanical deformation, solidification to metals processing processes such as welding and additive manufacturing. Finally likely future developments are discussed.
Published in: Advanced Engineering Materials, 10.1002/adem.202201355, Wiley-VCH