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On the interrelation of equilibrium positions and work of friction forces on brake squeal

Koch, Sebastian; Gödecker, Holger; Wagner, Utz von

Brake noise, in particular brake squeal, is a permanent topic both in industry and academia since decades. Nonlinearities play a decisive role for this phenomenon. One nonlinear effect widely ignored so far is that the brake can engage multiple equilibrium positions with severe consequences on the noise behavior. In fact in an automotive disk brake, the essential elements carrier, caliper and pad are elastically coupled with each other and their behavior is nonlinear that multiple equilibrium positions are possible. The engaged equilibrium position depends, for example, on the initial conditions, external disturbances, and the transient application of the brake pressure, and in consequence configurations with or without self-exciting characteristics of the friction forces result. Obviously, a self-exciting characteristic of the friction force is a necessary precondition for the occurrence of squeal. The authors recently published some corresponding results (Koch et al. FU Mech Eng, 2021. https://doi.org/10.22190/FUME210106020K) demonstrating that for same operating parameters with respect to brake pressure (i.e., brake torque), rotational speed and temperature the engaged equilibrium position has decisive influence whether squeal occurs or not. While in Koch et al. (2021) it has just been detected whether there is squeal or not, the excitation characteristic of the friction forces becomes, beside the engaged equilibrium position, the additional focus in the present paper. Therefore, a work criterion already successfully applied in earlier publications for squeal tendency is considered. For the experimental application of the work criterion, accelerometers have to be mounted. The accelerometers’ location to be applied can be determined in the chosen setup by the camera system anyway necessary for the measurement of the engaged equilibrium position. With this refined setup, it is possible to specify the states squeal, close to squeal and far from squeal. The test series again demonstrate the decisive influence of the engaged equilibrium position (for constant operation parameters) on the occurrence of the respective state. These findings can have consequences for simulations (consideration of multiple equilibrium positions in models and respective linearization with consequences on system’s eigenvalues), but also for the design (avoidance of equilibrium positions suspicious for squeal) and experimental setups (determination of special positions) of brakes.
Published in: Archive of Applied Mechanics, 10.1007/s00419-021-02071-4, Springer Nature