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Land Cover Changes Utilising Landsat Satellite Imageries for the Kumasi Metropolis and Its Adjoining Municipalities in Ghana (1986–2022)

Frimpong, Bernard Fosu; Koranteng, Addo; Atta-Darkwa, Thomas; Junior, Opoku Fosu; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz

Forest loss, unbridled urbanisation, and the loss of arable lands have become contentious issues for the sustainable management of land. Landsat satellite images for 1986, 2003, 2013, and 2022, covering the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly and its adjoining municipalities, were used to analyse the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes. The machine learning algorithm, Support Vector Machine (SVM), was used for the satellite image classification that led to the generation of the LULC maps. The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalised Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) were analysed to assess the correlations between the indices. The image overlays of the forest and urban extents and the calculation of the annual deforestation rates were evaluated. The study revealed decreasing trends in forestlands, increased urban/built-up areas (similar to the image overlays), and a decline in agricultural lands. However, there was a negative relationship between the NDVI and NDBI. The results corroborate the pressing need for the assessment of LULC utilising satellite sensors. This paper contributes to the existing outlines for evolving land design for the promotion of sustainable land use.
Published in: Sensors, 10.3390/s23052644, MDPI