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Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of aqua­bis­­(4,4′-dimeth­­oxy-2,2′-bi­pyridine)[μ-(2R,3R)-tartrato(4−)]dicopper(II) octa­hydrate

Wiedemann, Dennis; Kulko, Roman-David; Grohmann, Andreas

Typical electroless copper baths (ECBs), which are used to chemically deposit copper on printed circuit boards, consist of an aqueous alkali hydroxide solution, a copper(II) salt, formaldehyde as reducing agent, an L-(+)-tartrate as complexing agent, and a 2,2′-bi­pyridine derivative as stabilizer. Actual speciation and reactivity are, however, largely unknown. Herein, we report on the synthesis and crystal structure of aqua-1κO-bis­(4,4′-dimeth­oxy-2,2′-bi­pyri­dine)-1κ2N,N′;2κ2N,N′-[μ-(2R,3R)-2,3-dioxidosuccinato-1κ2O1,O2:2κ2O3,O4]dicopper(II) octa­hydrate, [Cu2(C12H12N2O2)2(C4H2O6)(H2O)]·8H2O, from an ECB mock-up. The title compound crystallizes in the Sohncke group P21 with one chiral dinuclear complex and eight mol­ecules of hydrate water in the asymmetric unit. The expected retention of the tartrato ligand's absolute configuration was confirmed via determination of the absolute structure. The complex mol­ecules exhibit an ansa-like structure with two planar, nearly parallel bi­pyridine ligands, each bound to a copper atom that is connected to the other by a bridging tartrato `handle'. The complex and water mol­ecules give rise to a layered supra­molecular structure dominated by alternating π stacks and hydrogen bonds. The understanding of structures ex situ is a first step on the way to prolonged stability and improved coating behavior of ECBs.
Published in: Acta Crystallographica Section E : Crystallographic Communications, 10.1107/S2056989019008053, International Union of Crystallography