Thermodynamical Frameworks for Higher Grade Material Theories with Internal Variables or Additional Degrees of Freedom
The objective of the present work is to compare several thermomechanical frameworks, taking into account the influence of strain gradient, internal variables, gradient of internal variables, and temperature gradient on the constitutive behavior of materials. In particular, the restrictions by the second law of thermodynamics are derived. The method of exploitation consists of two steps: an application of the well-known method by Liu and a new method of exploiting the residual inequality. The first example introduces an enlarged set of variables for the constitutive functions including in particular the strain gradient, an internal variable, its gradient, and the temperature gradient. In the second example, the power of internal forces is enriched to incorporate generalized stress measures. In the third example, the classical thermomechanical setting is complemented by a balance-type differential equation for an additional variable. Finally, material theories of grade n are envisaged. It is shown that the free energy density may depend on gradients only in the case that an additional balance equation is introduced. We also demonstrate that for isotropic materials the second law of thermodynamics implies for a large class of state spaces that the entropy flux equals the heat flux divided by temperature.
Published in: Journal of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, 10.1515/JNETDY.2006.014, De Gruyter
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