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Detection of a Stroke Volume Decrease by Machine-Learning Algorithms Based on Thoracic Bioimpedance in Experimental Hypovolaemia

Stetzuhn, Matthias; Tigges, Timo; Pielmus, Alexandru Gabriel; Spies, Claudia; Middel, Charlotte; Klum, Michael; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Orglmeister, Reinhold; Feldheiser, Aarne

FG Elektronik und medizinische Signalverarbeitung

Compensated shock and hypovolaemia are frequent conditions that remain clinically undetected and can quickly cause deterioration of perioperative and critically ill patients. Automated, accurate and non-invasive detection methods are needed to avoid such critical situations. In this experimental study, we aimed to create a prediction model for stroke volume index (SVI) decrease based on electrical cardiometry (EC) measurements. Transthoracic echo served as reference for SVI assessment (SVI-TTE). In 30 healthy male volunteers, central hypovolaemia was simulated using a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber. A machine-learning algorithm based on variables of EC was designed. During LBNP, SVI-TTE declined consecutively, whereas the vital signs (arterial pressures and heart rate) remained within normal ranges. Compared to heart rate (AUC: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73–0.87)) and systolic arterial pressure (AUC: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.74–0.85)), a model integrating EC variables (AUC: 0.91 (0.83–0.94)) showed a superior ability to predict a decrease in SVI-TTE ≥ 20% (p = 0.013 compared to heart rate, and p = 0.002 compared to systolic blood pressure). Simulated central hypovolaemia was related to a substantial decline in SVI-TTE but only minor changes in vital signs. A model of EC variables based on machine-learning algorithms showed high predictive power to detect a relevant decrease in SVI and may provide an automated, non-invasive method to indicate hypovolaemia and compensated shock.