A minimal model for the influence of equilibrium positions on brake squeal
The phenomenon brake squeal has been an ongoing topic for decades, both in the automotive industry and in science. Although there is agreement on the excitation mechanism of brake squeal, namely self-excitation due to frictional forces between the disk and the pad, in the subject of squeal it is very complex to discover all relevant effects and to take them into account. Several of these problems are related to nonlinearities, for example, in the contact between pad and disk or drum or in the behavior of the brake pad material. One of these nonlinear effects, which has been almost completely neglected so far, is that the brake can engage, mainly due to the bushing and joint elements within the brake, different equilibrium positions. This in fact has serious influence on the noise behavior as shown in experimental studies. For example, it is observed in experiments that, despite identical operating parameters, squeal sometimes occurs and sometimes not. In initial experimental studies, this could be related to the engaged equilibrium position. Following these experimental studies, the present paper introduces a minimal model by extending the well-known minimal model by Hoffmann et al. by corresponding elements and nonlinearities allowing the system to engage different equilibrium positions. As will be presented, the stability behavior strongly depends on the engaged equilibrium position. Therefore, the minimal model represents the key experimentally observed issues. Additionally, a limit cycle behavior can also be observed.
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Published in: GAMM-Mitteilungen, 10.1002/gamm.202300001, Wiley