Hybridization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sourdough Strains with Cryotolerant Saccharomyces bayanus NBRC1948 as a Strategy to Increase Diversity of Strains Available for Lager Beer Fermentation
The search for novel brewing strains from non-brewing environments represents an emerging trend to increase genetic and phenotypic diversities in brewing yeast culture collections. Another valuable tool is hybridization, where beneficial traits of individual strains are combined in a single organism. This has been used successfully to create de novo hybrids from parental brewing strains by mimicking natural Saccharomycescerevisiae ale × Saccharomyceseubayanus lager yeast hybrids. Here, we integrated both these approaches to create synthetic hybrids for lager fermentation using parental strains from niches other than beer. Using a phenotype-centered strategy, S. cerevisiae sourdough strains and the S. eubayanus × Saccharomyces uvarum strain NBRC1948 (also referred to as Saccharomyces bayanus) were chosen for their brewing aptitudes. We demonstrated that, in contrast to S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum crosses, hybridization yield was positively affected by time of exposure to starvation, but not by staggered mating. In laboratory-scale fermentation trials at 20 °C, one triple S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus × S. uvarum hybrid showed a heterotic phenotype compared with the parents. In 2 L wort fermentation trials at 12 °C, this hybrid inherited the ability to consume efficiently maltotriose from NBRC1948 and, like the sourdough S. cerevisiae parent, produced appreciable levels of the positive aroma compounds 3-methylbutyl acetate (banana/pear), ethyl acetate (general fruit aroma) and ethyl hexanoate (green apple, aniseed, and cherry aroma). Based on these evidences, the phenotype-centered approach appears promising for designing de novo lager beer hybrids and may help to diversify aroma profiles in lager beer.
Published in: Microorganisms, 10.3390/microorganisms9030514, MDPI