Exploring the Biomaterial-Induced Secretome: Physical Bone Substitute Characteristics Influence the Cytokine Expression of Macrophages
In addition to their chemical composition various physical properties of synthetic bone substitute materials have been shown to influence their regenerative potential and to influence the expression of cytokines produced by monocytes, the key cell-type responsible for tissue reaction to biomaterials in vivo. In the present study both the regenerative potential and the inflammatory response to five bone substitute materials all based on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), but which differed in their physical characteristics (i.e., granule size, granule shape and porosity) were analyzed for their effects on monocyte cytokine expression. To determine the effects of the physical characteristics of the different materials, the proliferation of primary human osteoblasts growing on the materials was analyzed. To determine the immunogenic effects of the different materials on human peripheral blood monocytes, cells cultured on the materials were evaluated for the expression of 14 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, VEGF, RANTES, IL-12p40, I-CAM, IL-4, V-CAM, TNF-α, GM-CSF, MIP-1α, Il-8 and MCP-1 using a Bio-Plex® Multiplex System. The granular shape of bone substitutes showed a significant influence on the osteoblast proliferation. Moreover, smaller pore sizes, round granular shape and larger granule size increased the expression of GM-CSF, RANTES, IL-10 and IL-12 by monocytes, while polygonal shape and the larger pore sizes increased the expression of V-CAM. The physical characteristics of a bone biomaterial can influence the proliferation rate of osteoblasts and has an influence on the cytokine gene expression of monocytes in vitro. These results indicate that the physical structure of a biomaterial has a significant effect of how cells interact with the material. Thus, specific characteristics of a material may strongly affect the regenerative potential in vivo.
Published in: International journal of molecular sciences, 10.3390/ijms22094442, MDPI