GLONASS FDMA data for RTK positioning: a five-system analysis
The use of the GLONASS legacy signals for real-time kinematic positioning is considered. Due to the FDMA multiplexing scheme, the conventional CDMA observation model has to be modified to restore the integer estimability of the ambiguities. This modification has a strong impact on positioning capabilities. In particular, the ambiguity resolution performance of this model is clearly weaker than for CDMA systems, so that fast and reliable full ambiguity resolution is usually not feasible for standalone GLONASS, and adding GLONASS data in a multi-GNSS approach can reduce the ambiguity resolution performance of the combined model. Partial ambiguity resolution was demonstrated to be a suitable tool to overcome this weakness (Teunissen in GPS Solut 23(4):100, 2019). We provide an exhaustive formal analysis of the positioning precision and ambiguity resolution capabilities for short, medium, and long baselines in a multi-GNSS environment with GPS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and GLONASS. Simulations are used to show that with a difference test-based partial ambiguity resolution method, adding GLONASS data improves the positioning performance in all considered cases. Real data from different baselines are used to verify these findings. When using all five available systems, instantaneous centimeter-level positioning is possible on an 88.5 km baseline with the ionosphere weighted model, and on average, only 3.27 epochs are required for a long baseline with the ionosphere float model, thereby enabling near instantaneous solutions.
Published in: GPS Solutions, 10.1007/s10291-020-01043-5, Springer