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Effect of Interfacial Ionic Layers on the Food-Grade O/W Emulsion Physical Stability and Astaxanthin Retention during Spray-Drying

Morales, Eduardo; Burgos-Díaz, César; Zúñiga, Rommy N.; Jorkowski, Johanna; Quilaqueo, Marcela; Rubilar, Mónica

The utilization of astaxanthin in food processing is considered to be narrow because of its substandard solubility in aqueous matrices and the instability of chemical compounds during the processing of food and the instability of chemical compounds during the processing of food. The investigation sought to evaluate multilayer emulsions stabilized by ionic interfacial layers of lupin protein isolate (LPI), ι-carrageenan (CA), and chitosan (CHI) on the physical stability of the emulsion as well as the retention of astaxanthin during the spray drying process. Primary emulsion (Pr-E) was prepared by adding LPI on oil droplet surfaces containing astaxanthin. The homogenization pressure and cycles to obtain the Pr-E were investigated. The secondary emulsion (Se-E) and tertiary emulsion (Te-E) were elaborated by mixing CA/Pr-E and CHI/Se-E, respectively. Emulsion stability was assessed under different environmental stresses (pH and NaCl). Astaxanthin retention of emulsions was determined immediately after finishing the spray-drying process. The results showed that Pr-E was stabilized with 1.0% (w/v) of LPI at 50 MPa and three cycles. Se-E and Te-E were obtained with CA/Pr-E and Se-E/CHI of 70/30 and 50/50% (w/w), respectively. The Se-E was the most stable compared to the Pr-E and Te-E when subjected to different pHs; nevertheless, once the NaCl concentration rose, no variations in the ζ-potential of all emulsions studied or destabilization were observed. The Se-E and Te-E derived provided higher astaxanthin retention (>95%) during the spray-drying process compared to Pr-E (around 88%). The results indicated that these astaxanthin multilayer emulsions show considerable potential as a functional ingredient in food products.
Published in: Foods, 10.3390/foods10020312, MDPI