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Long-Distance Electric Truck Traffic: Analysis, Modeling and Designing a Demand-Oriented Charging Network for Germany

Menter, Josef; Fay, Tu-Anh; Grahle, Alexander; Göhlich, Dietmar

The majority of freight in Germany is carried out by trucks, resulting in emitting approximately 9% of Germany’s carbon dioxide equivalent emissions. In particular, long-distance truck journeys contribute significantly to these emissions. This paper aims to explore the conditions and impacts of introducing E-Trucks in Germany by utilizing a microscopic traffic simulation approach. Therefore, five different electrification levels of the long-distance truck traffic are evaluated. The demand-oriented charging network dimensioning aims for a realistic and implementable design and is based on an average charging power of 720 kW. Additionaly, it considers the necessary infrastructure requirements at service and rest areas next to the motorway. The results of this research provide valuable insights in terms of usage, requirements and demand. For an electrification level of 1%, 177 chargers at 173 charging sites must be implemented, while 1296 chargers and 457 charging sites must be built for an electrification level of 20%. The increase in the electrification level leads to more efficient occupancy of the charging facilities; i.e., an increase from 1% to 5% improves the average occupation time ratio per charger by approximately 130%. Of the total energy consumed, 65% is recharged en-route at public chargers. Between Monday and Thursday, each 1% electrification level increase requires 2.68 GW h more energy for the public recharging network.
Published in: World Electric Vehicle Journal, 10.3390/wevj14080205, MDPI