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TCA Cycle and Its Relationship with Clavulanic Acid Production: A Further Interpretation by Using a Reduced Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Streptomyces clavuligerus

Ramirez-Malule, Howard; López-Agudelo, Víctor A.; Gómez-Ríos, David; Ochoa, Silvia; Ríos-Estepa, Rigoberto; Junne, Stefan; Neubauer, Peter

Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) has been widely studied for its ability to produce clavulanic acid (CA), a potent inhibitor of β-lactamase enzymes. In this study, S. clavuligerus cultivated in 2D rocking bioreactor in fed-batch operation produced CA at comparable rates to those observed in stirred tank bioreactors. A reduced model of S. clavuligerus metabolism was constructed by using a bottom-up approach and validated using experimental data. The reduced model was implemented for in silico studies of the metabolic scenarios arisen during the cultivations. Constraint-based analysis confirmed the interrelations between succinate, oxaloacetate, malate, pyruvate, and acetate accumulations at high CA synthesis rates in submerged cultures of S. clavuligerus. Further analysis using shadow prices provided a first view of the metabolites positive and negatively associated with the scenarios of low and high CA production.
Published in: Bioengineering, 10.3390/bioengineering8080103, MDPI