Nutrient recycling from sanitation and energy systems to the agroecosystem - Ecological research on case studies in Karagwe, Tanzania
Open cycles of organic carbon and nutrients cause soil degradation. Procedures such as ecological sanitation (EcoSan), bioenergy and Terra Preta practice (TPP) can contribute to closing nutrient cycles and may, in addition, sequester carbon. This paper introduces three projects in Karagwe, Tanzania, and their applied approach of integrated resource management to capture carbon and nutrients from different waste flows. Substrates derived from these case studies, biogas slurry, compost and CaSa-compost (containing biochar and sanitized human excreta), were assessed for their nutrient content by analysis of the total element composition. Evaluation focused on potential impacts of the tested amendments on the nutrient availability in the soil as well as on the local soil nutrient balance. Results revealed that all substrates show appropriate fertilizing potential compared to literature, especially for phosphorus (P). CaSa-compost was outstanding, with a total P concentration of 1.7 g dm-3 compared to 0.5 and 0.3 g dm-3 in compost and biogas slurry respectively. Furthermore, these soil amendments may reduce acidity of the soil, with a calculated liming effect of 3.4, 2.6 and 7.8 kg CaO for each kg of nitrogen added for biogas slurry, compost and CaSa-compost respectively. To offset negative P balances in Karagwe, about 8100, 6000 and 1600 dm3 ha-1 are required for biogas slurry, compost and CaSa-compost respectively. We conclude that especially CaSa-compost might offer immediate positive effects to crop production and nutrient availability in the soil.
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Published in: African journal of agricultural research, 10.5897/AJAR2015.10102, Academic Journals