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Theoretical study of influence of electromagnetic stirring on transport phenomena in wire feed laser beam welding

Meng, Xiangmeng; Artinov, Antoni; Bachmann, Marcel; Rethmeier, Michael

FG FĂĽgetechnik

The additional element from the filler wire in the laser beam welding is usually distributed inhomogeneously in the final weld due to the high solidification rate of weld pool. It has been found that the electromagnetic stirring produced by an external oscillating magnetic field can enhance the material mixing in the weld pool to achieve a more uniform element distribution. However, the magnetic field has a highly nonlinear and multicoupled interaction with the weld pool behavior, which makes the quantitative explanation of the physical mechanism difficult. In this study, the effect of electromagnetic stirring on the transport phenomena in the wire feed laser beam welding is investigated by a numerical modeling. A 3D transient multiphysical model considering the magnetohydrodynamics, heat transfer, fluid flow, keyhole dynamics, and element transport is developed. The multiple reflections and the Fresnel absorption of the laser on the keyhole wall are calculated using the ray tracing method. The numerical results show that a Lorentz force produced by the oscillating magnetic field and its induced eddy current gives significant influence on the transport phenomena in the molten pool. The forward and downward flow is enhanced by the electromagnetic stirring, which homogenizes the distribution of the additional elements from a nickel-based filler wire in a steel weld pool. The numerical results show a good agreement with the high-speed images of the molten pool, the fusion line from the optical micrograph, and the element distribution from the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This work provides a physical base for the electromagnetic-controlled laser beam welding and some guidance for the selection of electromagnetic parameters.
  • This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and AIP Publishing. This article appeared in X. Meng et al., Journal of Laser Applications 32, 022026 (2020) and may be found at https://doi.org/10.2351/7.0000069.