Graphene Quantum Dot-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Biomedical Applications
In the area of biomedicine, research for designing electrochemical sensors has evolved over the past decade, since it is crucial to selectively quantify biomarkers or pathogens in clinical samples for the efficacious diagnosis and/or treatment of various diseases. To fulfil the demand of rapid, specific, economic, and easy detection of such biomolecules in ultralow amounts, numerous nanomaterials have been explored to effectively enhance the sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility of immunosensors. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have garnered tremendous attention in immunosensor development, owing to their special attributes such as large surface area, excellent biocompatibility, quantum confinement, edge effects, and abundant sites for chemical modification. Besides these distinct features, GQDs acquire peroxidase (POD)-mimicking electro-catalytic activity, and hence, they can replace horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-based systems to conduct facile, quick, and inexpensive label-free immunoassays. The chief motive of this review article is to summarize and focus on the recent advances in GQD-based electrochemical immunosensors for the early and rapid detection of cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and pathogenic diseases. Moreover, the underlying principles of electrochemical immunosensing techniques are also highlighted. These GQD immunosensors are ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis and conducive for miniaturization, encouraging low-cost disease diagnostics in developing nations using point-of-care testing (POCT) and similar allusive techniques.
Published in: Materials, 10.3390/ma13010096, MDPI