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Biocompatibility and Immune Response of a Newly Developed Volume-Stable Magnesium-Based Barrier Membrane in Combination with a PVD Coating for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR)

Steigmann, Larissa; Jung, Ole; Kieferle, Wolfgang; Stojanovic, Sanja; Proehl, Annica; Görke, Oliver; Emmert, Steffen; Najman, Stevo; Barbeck, Mike; Rothamel, Daniel

To date, there are no bioresorbable alternatives to non-resorbable and volume-stable membranes in the field of dentistry for guided bone or tissue regeneration (GBR/GTR). Even magnesium (Mg) has been shown to constitute a favorable biomaterial for the development of stabilizing structures. However, it has been described that it is necessary to prevent premature degradation to ensure both the functionality and the biocompatibility of such Mg implants. Different coating strategies have already been developed, but most of them did not provide the desired functionality. The present study analyses a new approach based on ion implantation (II) with PVD coating for the passivation of a newly developed Mg membrane for GBR/GTR procedures. To demonstrate comprehensive biocompatibility and successful passivation of the Mg membranes, untreated Mg (MG) and coated Mg (MG-Co) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Thereby a collagen membrane with an already shown biocompatibility was used as control material. All investigations were performed according to EN ISO 10993 regulations. The in vitro results showed that both the untreated and PVD-coated membranes were not cytocompatible. However, both membrane types fulfilled the requirements for in vivo biocompatibility. Interestingly, the PVD coating did not have an influence on the gas cavity formation compared to the uncoated membrane, but it induced lower numbers of anti-inflammatory macrophages in comparison to the pure Mg membrane and the collagen membrane. In contrast, the pure Mg membrane provoked an immune response that was fully comparable to the collagen membrane. Altogether, this study shows that pure magnesium membranes represent a promising alternative compared to the nonresorbable volume-stable materials for GBR/GTR therapy.
Published in: Biomedicines, 10.3390/biomedicines8120636, MDPI