Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

dc.contributor.authorVirtanen, Marianna
dc.contributor.authorJokela, Markus
dc.contributor.authorNyberg, Solja T.
dc.contributor.authorMadsen, Ida E. H.
dc.contributor.authorLallukka, Tea
dc.contributor.authorAhola, Kirsi
dc.contributor.authorAlfredsson, Lars
dc.contributor.authorBatty, G. David
dc.contributor.authorBjorner, Jakob B.
dc.contributor.authorBorritz, Marianne
dc.contributor.authorBurr, Hermann
dc.contributor.authorCasini, Annalisa
dc.contributor.authorClays, Els
dc.contributor.authorBacquer, Dirk de
dc.contributor.authorDragano, Nico
dc.contributor.authorErbel, Raimund
dc.contributor.authorFerrie, Jane E.
dc.contributor.authorFransson, Eleonor I.
dc.contributor.authorHamer, Mark
dc.contributor.authorHeikkila, Katriina
dc.contributor.authorJöckel, Karl-Heinz
dc.contributor.authorKittel, France
dc.contributor.authorKnutsson, Anders
dc.contributor.authorKoskenvuo, Markku
dc.contributor.authorLadwig, Karl-Heinz
dc.contributor.authorLunau, Thorsten
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Martin L.
dc.contributor.authorNordin, Maria
dc.contributor.authorOksanen, Tuula
dc.contributor.authorPejtersen, Jan H.
dc.contributor.authorPentti, Jaana
dc.contributor.authorRugulies, Reiner
dc.contributor.authorSalo, Paula
dc.contributor.authorSchupp, Jürgen
dc.contributor.authorSiegrist, Johannes
dc.contributor.authorSingh-Manoux, Archana
dc.contributor.authorSteptoe, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorSuominen, Sakari B.
dc.contributor.authorTheorell, Töres
dc.contributor.authorVahtera, Jussi
dc.contributor.authorWagner, Gert G.
dc.contributor.authorWesterholm, Peter J. M.
dc.contributor.authorWesterlund, Hugo
dc.contributor.authorKivimäki, Mika
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.en
dc.subject.ddc610 Medizin und Gesundheit
dc.titleLong working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant dataen
dcterms.bibliographicCitation.originalpublishernameBMJ Publishing Group
tub.affiliationFak. 7 Wirtschaft und Management::Inst. Volkswirtschaftslehre und Wirtschaftsrecht (IVWR)::FG Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung und Wirtschaftspolitikde
tub.affiliation.facultyFak. 7 Wirtschaft und Managementde
tub.affiliation.groupFG Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung und Wirtschaftspolitikde
tub.affiliation.instituteInst. Volkswirtschaftslehre und Wirtschaftsrecht (IVWR)de
tub.publisher.universityorinstitutionTechnische Universität Berlin
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