Optimizing Public Charging: An Integrated Approach Based on GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
The rise in electric vehicle uptake has reshaped the German mobility landscape at unprecedented speed and scale. While public charging is pivotal to growing the electric vehicle market, municipalities can play a crucial role in accelerating the energy transition in transport. This research aims to assist municipalities in planning their strategic rollouts of public charging infrastructure in size and location. In the first step, charging demand is estimated based on four development scenarios in 2030 of EV adoption and public charging. In a second step, a geospatial analysis was performed on the study area. Supply and demand criteria were considered to reflect the attractiveness of each location on a grid map. While the supply criteria represent constraints related to infrastructure availability, the demand criteria are categorized into three dimensions: residential, commercial, and leisure. The prioritization of demand criteria was derived from the municipality’s input using the analytical hierarchy process method to reflect its strategy. After obtaining the suitability index map, a cluster analysis was performed using a k-means clustering algorithm to ensure adequate geographical coverage of the charging network. Finally, the proposed charging stations in each scenario were allocated to the top-scoring locations, establishing a municipal public charging network.
Published in: World Electric Vehicle Journal, 10.3390/wevj13080131, MDPI