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GPS + Galileo + BeiDou precise point positioning with triple-frequency ambiguity resolution

Li, Pan; Jiang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

FG Satellitengeodäsie

Along with the rapid development of GNSS, not only BeiDou, but also Galileo, and the newly launched GPS satellites can provide signals on three frequencies at present. To fully take advantage of the multi-frequency multi-system GNSS observations on precise point positioning (PPP) technology, this study aims to implement the triple-frequency ambiguity resolution (AR) for GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou-2 combined PPP using the raw observation model. The processing of inter-frequency clock bias (IFCB) estimation and correction in the context of triple-frequency PPP AR has been addressed, with which the triple-frequency uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation is realized for real GPS observations for the first time. In addition, the GPS extra-wide-line UPD quality is significantly improved with the IFCB correction. Because of not being contaminated by the IFCB, the raw UPD estimation method is directly employed for Galileo which currently has 24 satellites in operation. An interesting phenomenon is found that all Galileo satellites except E24 have a zero extra-wide-lane UPD value. With the multi-GNSS observations provided by MGEX covering 15 days, the positioning solutions of GPS + Galileo + BeiDou triple-frequency PPP AR have been conducted and analyzed. The triple-frequency kinematic GNSS PPP AR can achieve an averaged 3D positioning error of 2.2 cm, and an averaged convergence time of 10.8 min. The average convergence time can be reduced by triple-frequency GNSS PPP AR by 15.6% compared with dual-frequency GNSS PPP AR, respectively. However, the additional third frequency has only a marginal contribution to positioning accuracy after convergence.