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A Review on the Fate of Nutrients and Enhancement of Energy Recovery from Rice Straw through Anaerobic Digestion

Muhayodin, Furqan; Fritze, Albrecht; Rotter, Vera Susanne

Open field burning and tilling the rice straw (RS) back into the fields causes environmental threats by contributing to the increased greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and nutrient recovery from RS through anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective solution for its utilization. Although RS has good methane potential, its characteristics make it a difficult substrate for AD. This paper reviews the characteristics of RS, mass balance, and distribution of nutrients into liquid and solid digestate in the AD. The present review also discusses the effect of temperature, co-digestion, mixing, inoculum, organic loading rate, recycling liquid digestate, the addition of trace elements, and their bioavailability on the enhancement of biogas/methane yield in the AD of RS. In addition, the digestion of RS at various scales is also covered in the review.
Published in: Applied Sciences, 10.3390/app10062047, MDPI