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Ocean-Surface Wave Measurements Using Scintillation Theories on Seaborne Software-Defined GPS and SBAS Reflectometry Observations

Tsai, Lung-Chih; Chien, Hwa; Su, Shin-Yi; Liu, Chao-Han; Schuh, Harald; Alizadeh, Mohamad Mahdi; Wickert, Jens

In this study, a low-cost, software-defined Global Positioning System (GPS) and Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS) Reflectometry (GPS&SBAS-R) system has been built and proposed to measure ocean-surface wave parameters on board the research vessel New Ocean Researcher 1 (R/V NOR-1) of Taiwan. A power-law, ocean-wave spectrum model has been used and applied with the Small Perturbation Method approach to solve the electromagnetic wave scattering problem from rough ocean surface, and compared with experimental seaborne GPS&SBAS-R observations. Meanwhile, the intensity scintillations of high-sampling GPS&SBAS-R signal acquisition data are thought to be caused by the moving of rough surfaces of the targeted ocean. We found that each derived scintillation power spectrum is a Fresnel-filtering result on ocean-surface elevation fluctuations and depends on the First Fresnel Zone (FFZ) distance and the ocean-surface wave velocity. The determined ocean-surface wave speeds have been compared and validated against nearby buoy measurements.
Published in: Sensors, 10.3390/s23136185, MDPI