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Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Grooved Stator Vanes in a Radial Turbine Operating at High Pressure Ratios Reaching Choked Flow

Galindo, José; Tiseira, Andrés; Navarro, Roberto; Inhestern, Lukas Benjamin; Echavarría, Juan David

The flow through the stator vanes of a variable geometry turbocharger turbine can reach supersonic conditions and generates a shock wave on the stator vanes, which has a potential impact on the flow loss as well as on unsteady aerodynamic interaction. The shock wave causes a sudden increase in pressure and can lead to boundary separation and strong excitation force, besides pressure fluctuation in the rotor blades. Thus, in this study, the flat surface of the vanes of a commercial variable geometry turbocharger turbine has been modified to analyze the effects of two grooved surfaces configuration using CFD simulations. The results reveal that the grooves change the turbine efficiency, especially at higher speed, where the increase in the efficiency is between 2% and 6% points. Additionally, the load fluctuation around the rotor leading edge can be reduced and minimize the factors that compromise the integrity of the turbine. Furthermore, the grooves reduce the supersonic pocket developed on the suction side of the vane and diminish the shock wake intensity. Evaluating the effectiveness of the available energy usage in the turbine, on the one hand, at lower speed, the fraction of energy at the inlet destinated to produce power does not change significantly with a grooved surface on the stator vanes. On the other hand, at higher speed and higher pressure ratio with 5 grooves occurs the most effective approach of the maximum energy.
Published in: Aerospace, 10.3390/aerospace10040359, MDPI