Interactions between Phenolic Acids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates—Influence on Dough and Bread Properties
The understanding of interactions between proteins, carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds is becoming increasingly important in food science, as these interactions might significantly affect the functionality of foods. So far, research has focused predominantly on protein–phenolic or carbohydrate–phenolic interactions, separately, but these components might also form other combinations. In plant-based foods, all three components are highly abundant; phenolic acids are the most important phenolic compound subclass. However, their interactions and influences are not yet fully understood. Especially in cereal products, such as bread, being a nutritional basic in human nutrition, interactions of the mentioned compounds are possible and their characterization seems to be a worthwhile target, as the functionality of each of the components might be affected. This review presents the basics of such interactions, with special emphasis on ferulic acid, as the most abundant phenolic acid in nature, and tries to illustrate the possibility of ternary interactions with regard to dough and bread properties. One of the phenomena assigned to such interactions is so-called dry-baking, which is very often observed in rye bread.
Published in: Foods, 10.3390/foods10112798, MDPI