The Nonribosomal Peptide Valinomycin: From Discovery to Bioactivity and Biosynthesis
Valinomycin is a nonribosomal peptide that was discovered from Streptomyces in 1955. Over the past more than six decades, it has received continuous attention due to its special chemical structure and broad biological activities. Although many research papers have been published on valinomycin, there has not yet been a comprehensive review that summarizes the diverse studies ranging from structural characterization, biogenesis, and bioactivity to the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters and heterologous biosynthesis. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of valinomycin to address this gap, covering from 1955 to 2020. First, we introduce the chemical structure of valinomycin together with its chemical properties. Then, we summarize the broad spectrum of bioactivities of valinomycin. Finally, we describe the valinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and reconstituted biosynthesis of valinomycin. With that, we discuss possible opportunities for the future research and development of valinomycin.
Published in: Microorganisms, 10.3390/microorganisms9040780, MDPI