Semiconductor nanostructures for flying q-bits and green photonics
Breakthroughs in nanomaterials and nanoscience enable the development of novel photonic devices and systems ranging from the automotive sector, quantum cryptography to metropolitan area and access networks. Geometrical architecture presents a design parameter of device properties. Self-organization at surfaces in strained heterostructures drives the formation of quantum dots (QDs). Embedding QDs in photonic and electronic devices enables novel functionalities, advanced energy efficient communication, cyber security, or lighting systems. The recombination of excitons shows twofold degeneracy and Lorentzian broadening. The superposition of millions of excitonic recombinations from QDs in real devices leads to a Gaussian envelope. The material gain of QDs in lasers is orders of magnitude larger than that of bulk material and decoupled from the index of refraction, controlled by the properties of the carrier reservoir, thus enabling independent gain and index modulation. The threshold current density of QD lasers is lowest of all injection lasers, is less sensitive to defect generation, and does not depend on temperature below 80°C. QD lasers are hardly sensitive to back reflections and exhibit no filamentation. The recombination from single QDs inserted in light emitting diodes with current confining oxide apertures shows polarized single photons. Emission of ps pulses and date rates of 1010+bit upon direct modulation benefits from gain recovery within femtoseconds. Repetition rates of several 100 GHz were demonstrated upon mode-locking. Passively mode-locked QD lasers generate hat-like frequency combs, enabling Terabit data transmission. QD-based semiconductor optical amplifiers enable multi-wavelength amplification and switching and support multiple modulation formats.
Published in: Nanophotonics, 10.1515/nanoph-2018-0021, De Gruyter