Shallow carrier traps in hydrothermal ZnO crystals
Native and hydrogen-plasma induced shallow traps in hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals have been investigated by charge-based deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence microanalysis. The as-grown ZnO exhibits a trap state at 23 meV, while H-doped ZnO produced by plasma doping shows two levels at 22 meV and 11 meV below the conduction band. As-grown ZnO displays the expected thermal decay of bound excitons with increasing temperature from 7 K, while we observed an anomalous behaviour of the excitonic emission in H-doped ZnO, in which its intensity increases with increasing temperature in the range 140–300 K. Based on a multitude of optical results, a qualitative model is developed which explains the Y line structural defects, which act as an electron trap with an activation energy of 11 meV, being responsible for the anomalous temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence of H-doped ZnO.
Published in: New Journal of Physics, 10.1088/1367-2630/16/8/083040, IOP