Mechanical anisotropy of additively manufactured stainless steel 316L: An experimental and numerical study
Charmi, Amir; Falkenberg, R.; Ávila, L.; Mohr, G.; Sommer, K.; Ulbricht, A.; Sprengel, M.; Saliwan Neumann, R.; Skrotzki, B.; Evans, A.
The underlying cause of mechanical anisotropy in additively manufactured (AM) parts is not yet fully understood and has been attributed to several different factors like microstructural defects, residual stresses, melt pool boundaries, crystallographic and morphological textures. To better understand the main contributing factor to the mechanical anisotropy of AM stainless steel 316L, bulk specimens were fabricated via laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). Tensile specimens were machined from these AM bulk materials for three different inclinations: 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the build plate. Dynamic Young’s modulus measurements and tensile tests were used to determine the mechanical anisotropy. Some tensile specimens were also subjected to residual stress measurement via neutron diffraction, porosity determination with X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT), and texture analysis with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These investigations revealed that the specimens exhibited near full density and the detected defects were spherical. Furthermore, the residual stresses in the loading direction were between -75 +- 24 MPa and 137 +- 20 MPa, and the EBSD measurements showed a preferential (110) orientation parallel to the build direction. A crystal plasticity model was used to analyze the elastic anisotropy and the anisotropic yield behavior of the AM specimens, and it was able to capture and predict the experimental behavior accurately. Overall, it was shown that the mechanical anisotropy of the tested specimens was mainly influenced by the crystallographic texture.