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A 2,7-dichlorofluorescein derivative to monitor microcalcifications

Tholen, Patrik; Brown, Connor N.; Keil, Claudia; Bayir, Ali; Zeng , Hui-Hui; Haase, Hajo; Thompson, Richard B.; Lengyel, Imre; Yücesan, Gündoğ

Herein, we report the crystal structure of 2,7-dichlorofluorescein methyl ester (DCF-ME) and its fluorescence response to hydroxyapatite binding. The reported fluorophore is very selective for staining the bone matrix and provides turn-on fluorescence upon hydroxyapatite binding. The reported fluorophore can readily pass the cell membrane of the C2C12 cell line, and it is non-toxic for the cell line. The reported fluorophore DCF-ME may find applications in monitoring bone remodeling and microcalcification as an early diagnosis tool for breast cancer and age-related macular degeneration.
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Published in: Molecular Systems Design & Engineering, 10.1039/D2ME00185C, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)